Cuenca: Part Two

[For readers of my other blog, Velissima,  this is a copy of the post earlier today.]

Cuenca, I have such mixed feelings about you. I will say, to start, that if you are traveling in Ecuador, you must see Cuenca. Visually it is a mix of colonial Spain and the Vatican. 52 churches scattered around the city punctuate this impression. As I wrote in my last post, Cuenca is beautiful and the people and markets are splendid.

But this trip is about checking out places to park my caravan and pitch my tent, and Cuenca, which comes highly recommended, and seemingly affirmed by a seemingly endless stream of immigrants from northern climes, was high on the list to check out.

And that is probably the biggest problem. How does a 500 year old Ecuadoran City, built on Spanish conquest and colonialism, settled into decidedly conservative, conventional ways and institutions, accommodate this new invasion by new colonialists? In some ways, too well. In some ways, everything changes.

Too well? As a recent article in Cuenca Highlife, a local English language newspaper reported about “urban renewal” in the Historic District; “. . .the cost will be born by working Cuencanos, many with incomes well below [that of] the ‘economic refugees’ who have relocated from North America.  Plaza San Francisco [the site of one such development] is a microcosm of global inequalities, and draws attention to the inherited advantages of those of us born into social positions that have historically benefited from exploitation of non-European workers in former European colonies.”

The money is arriving, according to another recent article, from big investors who see the future of Cuenca as a comfortable enclave community for gringo retirees and escapees. The tramway now being built to relieve the central district of traffic and fumes from old buses, has so far put 200 local enterprises out of business. One doesn’t have to have been to Bangkok or Mexico City to see where Starbucks will be setting up shop. Some of us may only have $1300 in Social Security, but that is still an order of magnitude more than local working Cuencans, who are being driven out of the historic center by rising rents and gentrification.

The city was born of colonialism, as the author of the Highlife article points out:

[The] cultural wealth, however, has come at the expense of other cultures, which have been marginalized. The built architecture of Cuenca is the product of one of two activities: either manufacturing exports (quinine and panama hats) that exploited people in rural areas of Azuay; or from large haciendas, especially sugar cane producers in the temperate valleys of Paute and Yunguilla, which also exploited rural workers. Rural workers, or campesinos, in Ecuador worked in relations of dependence and without pay until the late 60s or early 70s, right around the time current American retirees may have bought their first house.

The local indigenous population does have an ongoing, albeit, uneasy presence in Cuenca. The markets, including Plaza San Francisco, cite of the currently debated gentrification. “Plaza San Francisco has long been the interface between the rural and urban worlds of southern Ecuador — a place where poor rural workers have come to supplement their incomes by selling to urban middle classes.” The indigenous vendors, and urban poor, as well as the working class, stand to lose with the ongoing development:

The potential to increase the value of San Francisco and surrounding areas is what has led the Bank of International Development — a division of the World Bank — and the Ecuadorian central government to provide funds for municipal intervention in the square.These interventions are intended to increase economic activity and boost growth, but as in all such projects, the benefits fall very unevenly. Plaza San Francisco provides a local example of how tourism and development projects affect actual people who are being ‘developed.’

I highly recommend reading the article in its entirety, because it is a succinct explanation of the new colonialism of development and gentrification that too many western immigrants to developing regions wittingly or unknowingly precipitate and participate in.

The fact is that though we want to think well of ourselves and the financial benefits we bring to places, it is important to be aware of our impact. I can’t resist one more insight from the article:

The displacement of the popular mercado also reinforces the racial hierarchy of the current global division of labour. North Americans in Cuenca do not support racial hierarchies, however, displacing the popular market will also lead to a phenotypical whitening of Plaza San Francisco as it becomes a transnational social space oriented towards the tastes and imaginaries of North American and European tourists and lifestyle migrants.

This, then, is my first and strongest objection to Cuenca as a place to live. Cuenca is a beautiful place built at the expense of indigenous peoples. The lovely religious and colonial architecture is a direct repudiation of the spirituality and aesthetics of these people. What is loved by the immigrants with fat wallets is the ongoing, never ending legacy of Pizarro. We may offer aid and assistance, and want to do the right thing. Volunteering to teach English is welcomed, and deeply ironic. In the end we are 21st century colonialists continuing a 500 year project pretty much unbroken, bringing what we think of as progress and enlightenment, some of us even bringing protestant proselytizing. All the time wanting to improve our own lives at the expense of the natives.

I meant this as a summing up, but it has turned out into a long attempt at explaining the role of migrants from the historic colonizing countries to former colonies, in an ongoing project of colonialism. This could actually could be a sufficient reason on its own to resist the charms of Cuenca. But, of course, I have more to say on the topic. In my next post.



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Cuenca Conclusion, Part 1

After a couple of weeks with a bad cold, which coincided, not coincidentally, with two weeks of really lousy, cold, wet weather, I went out with my friends walking in Cuenca, under a random and resistant sun.I was reminded what a beautiful city it is, and what a sweet temptation.

I’ve now been in Ecuador almost 3 months, and in Cuenca for about 7 weeks. As Cuenca was a destination for me in terms of considering retirement, and I was fortunate enough to gain a couple of friends along the way who also wished to spend time here, I have had the time to check things out and get a feel for the city.


Cuenca is architecturally and geographically gorgeous. The historic district is a living museum. Each blocks yields to the next in order of magnitude. As it is hilly, and the surrounds are mountainous, there are views from every angle. Oh, and the sky! West Texas would blush in jealousy. Being at 2600 meters, with the coast on one side and the Amazon valley on the other, the sky is a constant collision of wet clouds and sunshine. Yes, the beauty of Cuenca cannot be denied.


Of course, beauty may be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for a place to stay. It is necessary for me. I don’t know if “beauty is truth,” but the truth is, I need beauty where I live, as well as perspective-enough elevation to have a sense of where I am. Having a bit of a perspective and an ever changing horizon matters to me. Even threatening black clouds dropping over the mountain vista has an ominous charm. So I will give Cuenca full marks for inspiration.

I did rouse myself for a turn at the public market on Wednesday, one of the two big market days of the week. My post-cold lethargy made it a slog to get there, but I found my pace when I arrived in the midst of traders and buyers, and stacks of fresh produce and glistening fish. Cuenca has great markets. I realized how good when I was in Riobamba a couple of weeks ago catching my cold and touring the markets (not coincidentally, I suspect) There on Saturday, market day, the markets begged for buyers, and many sellers’ stalls stood empty. The women selling hornado de chancho, a whole roast pig served with mote (c0rn) and llapingacho (potato patties), were a uniform wearing dispirited lot, having squabbles with each other while badgering passers by to eat at their pig.


Assembly line hornado in Riobamba

By comparison, the marketers in Cuenca smile in their randoms marketing clothes and tease each other and the customers. If you don’t buy, there is nothing more than a smile and a nod, no pushing. The markets here are a joy, even if you aren’t buying. And a photographer’s dream.


And the markets provide all sorts of possibilities for good cooking. As Cuenca does not really have a culture of eating out in the evenings, and the main meal of the day is mid-day, it helps to cook for yourself or yourselves. The main meal of the day, almuerza, can be a real money saver for people on a budget, but it is generally fairly prosaic and not terrifically inspired.


Typical $3 almuerzo

There are many kind words for Cuencans; pleasant, gentle, kind, self-effacing and helpful. But full stop at “quiet.” This morning as I write, at 8 AM, the local park is trying out the loud speakers. We are a kilometer away and it is a concert in the front room. Car alarms are a constant. We have come to consider it Cuenca’s theme music. I’ll never hear a car alarm again and not think of the days in Cuenca when 10 a day would be a quiet day. At night the local bar empties and the loud voices carry on as if it were noon, not as if the rest of the neighborhood had been asleep for hours.

Cuenca’s people are probably a very good reason for moving here. I haven’t met a mean one yet, though I am sure they exist, and they seem to me to be tolerant beyond reasonableness with our outsider ways and our big footprint.


They are also family people before anything else. In most Latin cities the evenings are spent in paseo, strolling with family or friends in the town square, and hanging out at taverns and cafes that ring the square. It is a social time and my favorite time of the day for this reason. In Cuenca people go home in the evening and stay there. There is a rush home, a marienda, or small dinner, and then, of course, I don’t know. It is private. Cuencans are a private bunch, it seems. My Spanish teacher told me that the local big park (home to this morning’s 8 AM concert) used to be a place utilized mainly by drunks and drug users. These days the place bristles with activity and weekends are full of families. She told me this was due to outsider influence, and Cuencans were getting outside more.

But back to my cold and the weather. I know that colds, and swine flu, of which there are 3 confirmed cases in Cuenca at the moment, come from rhino-viruses and not a change in weather. Mine probably has more to do with being in closed spaces such as markets and buses than with the weather. But I have barely been able to keep warm for the last two weeks, which has certainly made me feel more miserable. The spring-like weather of Cuenca seems to be one of its main selling points. But I think we tend to envision spring as a season of sunshine and blossoms, and warm weather broken by a few cool breezes. Here what I have experienced is Seattle spring on a bad day. The mornings are cold and cloudy dismal gray. Any tiny crease in the cloud cover causing reflections of the the sun that is surely out there somewhere is a reason for optimism. The optimism is sometimes rewarded with a full blast of sunshine which is, alas, quickly erased by a cold wind bringing in darker clouds and a freshet of rain. This cycle can continue all day till late afternoon yields to a downpour. And, as the PR agents say, there is no heat in the homes, as it is always springtime. I have had a cold and been cold for two weeks.


When the weather good it is glorious. Sunny days broken by clouds that wander by as close as your neighbor, ending with sunsets beyond words.


Cuenca is full of museums and galleries, and musical events. You cannot want for entertainment of that sort. We spent yesterday afternoon in two different museums, one dedicated to hat making and the other to Latino handicrafts from different countries. Both were homed in marvelous buildings. There are more museums to be seen. Art and history, archeology and anthropology are all properly celebrated. Pumapungo Museum itself is worthy of a trip to Cuenca. The Alliance Francaise hosts many events, musical and otherwise. The immigrant community of westerners also sponsor activities and fundraisers.

Cuenca is a pretty extraordinary place. A walk this afternoon took us first to some beautiful stairs up to the historic center, to a bookstore where I could exchange a handful of books for a new one, almuerzo, the post office, a street corner eyeglass repairman/photocopier, coffee and desert in a decidedly gringo little cafe and back via another grand staircase.


I leave Cuenca tomorrow, and I really don’t envisage returning. Ecuador was a surprise for me, and a gift. But I won’t be settling here. I’ll write about this decision and why later in the week. If you have gotten this far, thanks for your patience with such a long and rambling post.



Am I too old to learn a new language?*


This year, as I travel through South America, I am finding my limits. A one mile swim followed by a 5 mile hike takes all that I have and I am rendered exhausted beyond words. (It didn’t help that after the 5 miles, we arrived back home to find the power out and a 5-floor stair climb awaiting.) My recovery time is much longer, as well. It is frustrating.

My language learning skills are equally challenging. I admit to never having been good at second language learning, but I have been studying Spanish online now for over a year, and tested at intermediate level when I started my course at Cuenca University this winter/summer here in Ecuador. Being a “false-intermediate” (I haven’t every taken a course, so my intermediate skills are spotty, with big holes) I was probably overly confident. My class has been a huge challenge, and has been getting increasingly discouraging.  My false confidence was probably encouraged by the kindness of Ecuadorians, who are very pleased when anyone tries to learn their language, but there I sit in the classroom feeling that my brain is impermeable brick. Sometimes I have to fight back tears of frustration and embarrassment. I am starting to appreciate better why so many immigrants to Ecuador, and Mexico as well, fail to learn the language.

Those immigrants most often are “mature” adults of retirement age. I suspect many of them have not been in an education environment for 40-50 years, so learning is even more of a challenge. At least I have been an educator for my career. We older people get the message from society too much that we are past our prime. This message is reinforced by our experiences with our bodies and minds. In an episode of Frankie and Grace, Frankie has a hard time passing her driving test. She has let her license expire because she was afraid of failing the physical part of the test-vision. But what turns out to be the obstacle is memory and the written test. As her doubts deepen, her sons get worried about her mental capacity.


But Frankie is wiser, of course. She remembers learning in university that the human brain responds to similarity of conditions when trying to recollect information. Since she usually studies with a bong-full, she replicates the conditions and goes and takes the written test while high, and passes with no problem. Yes, her memory was slipping a bit, but she had strategies for overcoming the problem. She had many years of learning and experience.

I recalled this episode (my memory is not that bad) while I was struggling with my Spanish class. I’m only encouraged when I see my fellow student, who is young and Japanese, struggle with cognates (cognates are words in two languages that share a similar meaning or spelling). Though her brain is young, fresh and retentive, it lacks the ability to connect new words to words from her native language. For me, some Spanish vocabulary is a small step from my existing English vocabulary, and Spanish is not such a “foreign” language to Americans, especially those of us who have lived in communities in the US that have a large number of Spanish speakers. This is an advantage of both culture and age, and it is an advantage I have.

According to the article in the Guardian, “Am I too old to learn a new language?,”Picking up a new language’s vocabulary is much easier for adults than learning the rules that govern its grammar or syntax. This is because new words can be easily mapped on to a learner’s pre-existing knowledge.” I think we also have more mature social skills, and can understand speakers of other languages better because we can read the environment and body language better. This is a real advantage for me, as I have spent the last 14 years living in non-English speaking countries.

But how can I learn Spanish when I get frustrated and demoralized? In English language teaching most instructors rely on the “communitative approach:”

The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.(source)

This approach emphasizes the use of the language being learned in real life situations, and “success” is measured by the ability to communicate. Prior to taking my current class, I was gaining confidence in my Spanish. I was increasingly able to communicate effectively in my dealings with a monolingual Spanish environment. This successful communication increased my confidence, and thus my courage to continue, and, hence, my learning. Despite the kindness of my teacher, I feel my confidence and skills have actually deteriorated. We have been studying, from a book, grammar. The emphasis has been on verb conjugations and especially irregular verbs. Irregular verbs are highly unlikely to have English language cognates. They seem to hit the side of my brain like bugs on the windscreen. Dead on arrival.

Yes, we can learn a new language in our 60’s and beyond. It takes patience, and the right approach. If you are looking for a language school, pay careful attention to their methodology. An emphasis on rote learning and grammar is clearly not the best way for us to learn languages. We need to be able to build on our strengths and develop confidence by way of successful communication.

An important added benefit to language learning is that we also are strengthening our brains in the process:

Learning a new language may not always be easy for adults, but there is research to suggest that doing so is beneficial for brain health. As we get older, most of us experience an age-related decline in mental functions such as attention and memory, and in some people the acceleration of this process leads to the development of Alzheimer’s disease or some other form of dementia. A number of recent studies suggest that learning a foreign language can slow this inevitable age-related cognitive decline or perhaps even delay the onset of dementia. (source)

Just as we need to actually increase our physical exercise as we age, so it is the case for mental calisthenics, “”Learning a language later on in life might be more beneficial than learning it earlier, because it takes more effort,” Bak continues. “It has parallels with physical exercise – a stroll is good for your health, but not as beneficial as a run.””(source)

Next month I’m going to Machu Picchu with a couple of friends who are 10 years younger than I. They will climb the mountain. I will be very grateful to be able to hike the site and climb the stairs, and communicate with the patient guides in Spanish.



Ecuador, Arrival and 1st Impressions

I will start this by admitting that I had seen so much written about retiring in Ecuador that I was prepared to not love it. Yes. Not necessarily a confession, but an acknowledgement that I can be a bit of a snob. How can that many people like something without some of them having relinquished their critical capacity? So I arrived with a bit of an agenda-a desire to find the spider under the bed that everyone else had overlooked.


I had myself rather unceremoniously dropped by the side of the road in Otavalo with a couple of much younger backpackers after taking a long raucous bus ride from the Colombian border. We stood there for a few moments and then I went and found a taxi, as I already had a reservation. They didn’t, so I invited them to come with me to my hostel.

When we arrived it seemed as if the hostel was closed. It was darkish, towards sundown, and seemingly lifeless. Finally a young man came to the door, after we rang a few times, and showed us into a dimly lit entry. Yes, I had a reservation, no, the couple didn’t. No problem either way. The partner of the young man arrived and scooted the young couple to the “honeymoon suite” at the top floor. I was taken to a smaller room on the second floor off from a bit of a library. It was getting darker, and the largely unlit building was empty save the 5 of us. I have to admit to visions of the Bates Hotel. I have learned along the way not to judge the accommodations too harshly when arriving after a long bus ride, especially from another country.


The Hostel sat a little uphill from downtown, and every level offered views of volcanoes and the city. At the top was a kitchen the size of a small apartment, with volcanoes from every direction. The hostel was the loveliest I’ve stayed in, and the young men running it saw to everything quietly and with a very patient graciousness. At $15 a night for an ensuite single with a view, it was perfect.



The big white building in this picture is the hostel.

Otavalo serves as the eponymous city core for the indigenous people native to Imbabura Province in northern Ecuador. The streets are filled with Otavalans strolling and taking care of business. Poncho square functions as the city center, close to which is the Saturday animal market and the fresh foods market.








This is a favorite snack of tiny snails.



I stayed in Otavalo for a week-probably out of laziness and the pleasure of a good kitchen in which to cook the market findings. I still was unconvinced about Ecuador, but it was early days. Walking the streets every day in Otavalo was a pleasure, and the people were kind and warm. It certainly meets the criteria I have for a place to retire, but I didn’t feel it, as it were. Maybe it was just too entirely other, and I felt like an interloper and a bit of a voyeur.

But I appreciated the striking difference from Colombia, which has a very small indigenous population. It was a good introduction to Ecuador, and I warmed to the country. While there I visited Cotacachi twice. I’ll write about that another time.





International Retirement Migration

I just finished listening to an NPR (National Public Radio in the US) report on retirees in Cotacachi, a rural town in northern Ecuador. ( The report talks about the arrival of American expats to this small Ecuadorian town which has a very low cost of living, great views and an easy way of life. It also talks about one of the great engines of expat ingress to Ecuador, International Living, an online magazine which markets all sorts of services to expats, such as real estate, attorneys, local experts, etc., as well as its own premium services, seminars and webinars. To read International Living is to be convinced that fairy tales come true, even at $1000-1300 a month.

International Living is the top hit every time on Google when looking up retirement abroad, and they are the go to bad boys of unreasonable expectations. The report on NPR mentions them several times, for good reason. But they have tapped into a market, they didn’t create it whole cloth. They have probably single handedly  doubled the number of American expats in Ecuador, but if you think about it, it takes a lot to convince a person to leave their home country and their lives and move to a strange country where they speak a different language.

Why We Leave

Why would people want to leave their homes and families and everything that is familiar to them, to go to a new country, any new country? 

The main reason for the current retiree diaspora is financial. Most of us older people are now, or soon will be, living on fixed incomes that are no match for the US cost of living. We live in the richest country on earth, but we can’t afford it. It is that simple. When you take into account what is required in the US: housing, food and clothing, medical care, transportation and other basic needs, there just isn’t enough in the pension. According to a 2006 Princeton University Working Paper by Thomas Methvin, “As the Migration Policy Institute attests, “The skyrocketing cost of medical and nursing care paired with increasing life expectancies have led to growing doubts that Medicare, Social Security, and private retirement plans will be sufficient for a decent retirement living for all but the most fortunate of retirees” (Migration Policy Institute 2006).

The second reason is lifestyle. This is in large part related to finances. If you can paste together an existence in the US on your pension, it will be a rather spartan one-maybe one your puritan ancestors would approve of? Probably in the US, if you are on an average SS retirement, you will continue to work to supplement your pension. From the same study mentioned above:

“Migrants leave, even from the so-called “core” [developed nations], because they are embedded with lifestyle expectations that they cannot fulfill given their present living conditions, much like those who may leave the periphery [developing nations]. This happens for example when retired migrants living in the “core” make a calculated association between differentials in the cost-of-living in so-called “periphery” regions, causing them to seek locations that allow them to stretch their resources and attain (or come closer to) such a lifestyle.”

So, let me explain that a bit. In one dominant explanation of immigration, it is argued that people migrate to the developed nations (the “core”) because of the penetration of advanced consumer lifestyle ideas and desires into the developing nations (periphery) and people migrate in search of the better life they believe they can have, or at least give their children, in the most modern nations. In other words, they are driven by the desire for a consumer lifestyle. I think it is fairly clear that this is often the case (with many economic migrants, but of course not the case with refugees).

When it comes to the migration of retirees from the developed nations to developing nations, it is ironically the same operation in reverse. We in the rich countries all grow up with consumer desires mostly driven by media. We want a good, comfortable life-style and actually feel quite entitled to it. Many retirees feel cheated when they realize they can’t play golf and lay about at the beach in their retirement. We want our own homes and to be independent. Moving in with the grown children and watching the grand-babies is neither desirable nor an option. So just as the migrants from the developing nation are seeking a good life-style, so are the retirement migrants moving to the developing nations.

A reason quite related to the above is disenchantment with the American way of life. I have found that a lot of retirees I’ve met abroad, or whose blog articles I’ve read, feel alienated by contemporary American culture and society. This critique comes from the right and the left, as if you could divide the expat retirees along the lines of Sanders and Trump. There is a general malaise, even if it is interpreted differently. Again, it would seem that those migrating out of developed countries are driven by similar forces as those who are immigrating into them- the American (or western, or developed) way of life.

The promises of the life of leisure in the perfect climate with all the amenities obviously overstates the possibilities. Just as the immigrant who arrives in Europe or North America experience some painful realities, so do the expat retirees. But we are driven by similar, and somewhat eternal forces. Humans are migrants. Why this is still a mystery and a controversy defies logic.  Now is a new era of migration, and retirees are now being recognized as being part of the new diaspora.





Assessment: Retirement in Colombia on a Pension

That is what this trip is about, assessing retirement options, though I do have to remind myself at times. So, after 6 weeks here and time in the two major cities and some small towns, I do have a few conclusions.

No real obstacles present themselves, to start with. The weather in the mountain regions (most of Colombian cities are in the mountain regions) stays well within the temperate range year round. Colombia is fairly well developed, and with rare exception you can find what you need. Airfares from the States are quite reasonable, and frequent from the cities. There are plenty of expats and a lot of them are doing interesting things, like producing hand-crafted foods, beers and wines, and raising organic produce.

One could easily find some work to do here. The government has an initiative to become bilingual, the second language being English, but it has a very long way to go. The good thing about that is that teaching jobs should be relatively easy to come by. In fact, the society seems to be on a general positive trajectory and I can see lots of opportunities to earn some extra money, from beer brewing to running hostels and restaurants. The town I am currently in, a very small but touristic town (mostly Colombians and international backpackers) is in desperate need of a few good restaurants.

People are generally friendly and helpful. The cities have world class museums and entertainment, as well as excellent restaurants. There is no shortage of outdoor stuff to do, in fact this is a superb country for every sort of sport.

Health care is getting very good here. Medical and dental tourism is developing, and there is a national health care system. I had the splendid opportunity to check out the emergency care in Bogota in a public hospital, which is the very minimal quality care you can expect. I got taken care of by an excellent doctor for the equivalent of $20, including an ambulance (free), the hospital visit, prescriptions and the taxi home. I wrote a detailed report here.

A retirement visa is relatively easy to come by in Colombia. The visa is based on your provable pension as a multiple of the minimum wage. The current necessary income is less than $700 a month.

Retirement visa (TP-7) – for the foreigner who receives a retirement income such as a pension from a public or private company or the government (Social Security). The requirement is a minimum of three times the minimum wage in Colombia. The minimum wage in 2016 is 689,454 pesos per month, so the minimum retirement income is only $629 per month at an exchange rate of 3,290 pesos. (source)

On the other hand, and there must be an other hand, there are some, well, considerations.

The peso has strengthened slightly since I’ve been here, but it seems the baseline is rock bottom 1800 pesos to the US$. Today it is close to its high at 3150 to the dollar (3400 is the recent high).  Things are ridiculously cheap at the moment (lunch from $2-3 US, and that is the major meal of the day). I stayed in good places in Medellin and Villa de Leyva for $10-11 a night for a private room with shared bath, kitchen and very quiet location. If the exchange rate strengthens to its highest rate, prices would nearly double. This is the reality. Two years ago the rate was at less than 2000 to the dollar. You should be cautious about retiring here if you are banking on the current exchange rates.

While the government may have a goal of bilingualism, it is a distant dream. I’m amazed at how few people have any grasp of English at all. Of course, I am equally aghast at the number of foreign tourists arrive here with no Spanish. In this little village in the midst of the countryside, I see people sit down and start prattling at the waitstaff in English, and seem put out when they aren’t understood. This is not a retirement scene like you can find in Mexico or Spain. I cannot imagine retiring to anywhere in Colombia without learning the language, and arriving with at least basic survival skills in Spanish.

While it is close by plane to the United States, unlike Mexico, the country feels far away. It is certainly part of its charm, but your friends probably won’t be jumping on a flight down very often. You will need to build a social circle here amongst the other foreigners and the Colombians. For the long term this is great for a lot of people, but I think it will also be an adjustment for many.

I think for me the biggest stumbling block is the exchange rates. The cost of living may remain relatively stable for people living on pesos, if you are getting an American pensions in US dollars, it could get rocky.